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Alternating hemiplegia of childhood in Denmark: Clinical manifestations and ATP1A3 mutation status

Published:October 07, 2013DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpn.2013.08.007

      Abstract

      Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by early-onset recurrent distinctive hemiplegic episodes commonly accompanied by other paroxysmal features and developmental impairment. De novo mutations in ATP1A3 were recently identified as a genetic cause of AHC. To describe the entire Danish cohort of paediatric AHC patients we approached neuropaediatricians nationwide. All currently acknowledged Danish patients ≤16 years with AHC were genetically tested and seen by the same child neurologist (PU). Ten patients; seven girls and three boys were identified. Mean present age was 10.0 years (range 1–16). Mean age at presentation was 7.4 months (range 1–18 months). Sequencing of ATP1A3 in all ten patients revealed a pathogenic mutation in seven. Two females with moderate psychomotor impairment were heterozygous for the known p.G947R mutation, whereas one severely retarded boy was heterozygous for the common p.E815K mutation. The prevalent p.D801N mutation was identified in two moderate to severely retarded children. Interestingly, in a set of monochorionic male twins a novel p.D801E mutation was identified, underscoring that the asparagine at position 801 is a mutation hotspot. Three girls aged 5–13 years did not reveal any ATP1A3 mutations. They were rather mildly clinically affected and displayed a normal or near-normal psychomotor development. This is the first study of AHC in the Danish paediatric population. The patients harboured a wide range of psychomotor difficulties. Patients with no mutation detected tended to be less severely affected. Prevalence was approximately 1 per 100,000 children.

      Keywords

      Abbreviations:

      ADHD (attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder), AHC (alternating hemiplegia of childhood), Atyp (atypical case), DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), DYT12 (dystonia 12), EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), EEG (electroencephalography), Nd (no mutation detected), Na (not analysed), PCR (polymerase chain reaction), Typ (typical case)
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